The regiment was raised on 15 June 1941 to meet the claim by the then undivided State of Assam for its own fighting unit to counter the threat of the Japanese invasion of India. The young regiment soon proved its capabilities within three years of its raising, at the consecutive battles of Jessami, the epic defence of Kohima and capture of Aradura, all of which were awarded as Battle Honours to the Regiment. The Regiment earned high praise for its combat skills in World War II. After Independence, the Regiment gained in strength and its battalions have taken part in all wars and counter-insurgency operations with distinction. It was awarded a Battle Honour for its tenacious defence at Chamb (1971). Two battalions were part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka in 1988 and a battalion served in Cambodia in 1993 as part of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. A Territorial Army battalion and a Rashtriya Rifles battalion are affiliated to the regiment.The class composition of the regiment includes Nagas, Mizos, Assamese, tribes of Arunachal Pradesh and other North Eastern tribes. Two battalions also have Dogras, Garhwalis, Gorkhas and South Indian castes. The unique cultural and tribal character of the regiment makes for a fine combination of cheerful, tough and willing soldiers who excel in operations in mountainous and jungle terrain.
The regimental insignia is the one-horned Rhinoceros of Assam. The regimental motto is Asam Vikram (Unique Valour). Regimental colours are Black and Gold (State colours of undivided Assam) and Scarlet (the colour of the Infantry). Badges of rank are Silver and Black. The side arm is the 'dah'. Its regimental language is Hindi. The Regimental Centre is at Shillong.
Pre-IndependenceToungoo, Jessami, Kohima, Aradura, Kyaukmyaung Bridgehead, Mawlaik and Toungoo.